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SOCIETY OF MICROSCOPISTS. 315 



THE CRYSTALLOGRAPHY OF BUTTER AND OTHER 

FATS. 



By Thomas Taylor, M.D., Microscopist U. S. Department of 
Agriculture, Washington, D. C. 



PLATES I. AND II. 
CRYSTALLINE FORMATIONS OF BUTTER AND FATS. 

Figs, i, 2, 3 and 4. Represent primary crystals of butter, X80 to no. 

Figs. 5 and 6. Secondary crystals forming within primary crystals. 

Figs. 7 and 8. Secondary crystals which have separated from the pri- 
mary forms. XSotoiio. 

Figs. 9, 10 and 11. Tertiary crystals of butter. X80 to 140. 

Fig. 12. Tertiary passing into the amorphous. X140. 

Figs. 13, 14, 15 and 16. Represent oleomargarine. X80 to no. 

Fig. 17. Oleo, X140. This crystal is not found in unboiled oleomarga- 
rine. 

Fig. 18. Oleo in its second stage, as seen in oleomargarine as sold. 

Figs. 19 and 20. Common lard. X140 to 400. 

Figs. 21, 22, 23 and 24. Crystals of beef-fat from various tissues of the 
ox. (Omentum, kidney, marrow of the femur, and 
round.) 

PLATE III. 

CRYSTALLINE FORMATIONS OF BUTTER. 

Figs, i, 2, 3, 6, 8, 9, 12 and 14. Primary crystals of normal butter. Xgo 

to no. 
Figs. 4, 7 and 10. Primary crystals showing "secondaries" forming. 
Figs. 13 and 15. Secondary crystals of butter. X8oto 140. 
Figs. 5 and n. Tertiary crystals of butter. X80 to 140. 



3l6 PROCEEDINGS OF THE AMERICAN 

PLATE IV. 
CRYSTALLINE FORMATIONS OF OLEO AND BUTTER. 

Figs, i, 2, 4 and 11. Crystals of boiled oleo (Armour). X70 to 140. 

Figs. 3, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9. Crystals of boiled oleo in process of decay. 
Such forms are frequently observed in oleomargarine. 
X140. 

Fig. 10. The butter crystal as photographed by Detmers. 

Fig. 12. A crystal of oleo and lard made by Prof. Weber, which he says 
cannot be distinguished from that of pure butter. (See 
Figs. 10 and 14.) 

Figs. 13 and 15. Crystals of boiled butterine as prepared by Prof. 
Weber and photographed by Prof. Detmers, repre- 
senting the butter crystal according to Prof. Weber. 

Fig. 14. The true butter crystal, photographed by the late Dr. Bernard 
Persh. Compare this plate with the transition stages 
of butter crystals, Plate I. 



PLATE V. 

CRYSTALLINE FORMATIONS OF OLEO AND OLEO- 
MARGARINE. 

Fig. I. Boiled oleo by plain light, exhibiting spines. X140. 

Fig. 3. Boiled oleo by polarized light, showing a cross. X140. 

Figs. 2, 4, 5, 6, 9, 11, 12, 13, 14 and 15. General appearance of oleomar- 
garine as sold in the market. X75 to 1 10. 

Fig. 7. Armour's oleomorgarine boiled and cooled. X140. 

Fig. 10. A specimen of oleomargarine composed mostly of stearine and 
cottonseed oil. Xno. 

Fig. 8. Boiled butterine (Armour's make), showing the oleo crystals. 

The above crystals were all photographed by polarized light, except 
in the case of Fig. i, which was by plain light. 



Plate I. 
CRYSTALLINE FORMATIONS OF r.UTTLR AND FATS. 




Plate II 



CRYSTALLINE FORMATION OF BUTTER AND FAT. 

as seen by polari/ed light and selenste plaie 




r.rAnm.(^0/ 



• •(.» LiThtJl LtlCWTT <^'irriN« CO Kf 



Plate III. 
CRYSTALLINE FORMATIONS OF BUTTER. 




I EMO. CO., N. V. 



Photocrfciib-l bT 
P(.r»ii, Wftliual«7 »utl (ift^ojo* 



Plate IV. 
CRYSTALLINE FORMATIONS OF "OLEO" & BUTTER. 




MO%» CNa. C0-« N. V. 



Ptrih and Detmert. Pbotofi. 



Plate V, 
CRYSTALLINE FORMATIONS OF "OLEO" & OLEOMARGINE. BOILED AND RAW. 




mcsj tNQ. CO.. N. V 



Plate VT. 
CRVSTALLtNE FORMATIONS OF LARD AND OTHER FATS. 

2 




MOtll tNO <LU., N. V. 



SOCIETY OF MICROSCOPISTS, 31/ 

PLATE VI. 
CRYSTALLINE FORMATIONS OF VARIOUS FATS. 

Figs, i and 3. Respectively, primary and secondary crystals of loon 
fat. Xiio. 

Figs. 2 and 8. Primary and secondary crystals of musk-rat fat. The 
primary (No. 2) are always very small, measuring about 
three one-thousandths of an inch in diameter. 

Fig. 4. Crystals of oleo. X 140 diameters. (Extract of beef-fat.) 

Fig. 5. Crystals of common lard by plain light. X400. 

Fig. 6. Secondary crystals of butter. Xno. 

Fig. 7. Crystals of beef fat. X140. 

Fig. 9. Crystals of deer fat. X140. 

Fig. 10. Lard by plain light. X140. 

Fig. II. Crystals of the solid fat of cottonseed oil. Xno. 

Fig. 12. Neutral lard crystals, immature. X140.